Sunday, 19 August 2018

Clay Minerals | Different Types Of Clay Minerals || Soil Mechanics

types of clay mineral
Clay Mineral
Clay Minerals 
Clay minerals are the characteristic minerals of the earth near surface environments.  They form in soils and sediments, and by diagenetic and hydrothermal alteration of rocks.  Water is essential for clay mineral formation and most clay minerals are described as hydrous alumino silicates.

Types of clay minerals 
There is different types of clay minerals as below -

  • Kaolinite
  • Montmorillonite
  • Illite
1. Kaolinite Mineral
✍ It is 1:1 substitution. ( 1 Si : 1 Al )
✍ Bonding force between basic gibbsite silica sheet and other gibbsite silica sheet is " Hydrogen Bond ".
✍ Hydrogen bond is strong enough so No or little amount of water penetrate into inter layer, hence there will be no swelling or shrinkage of inter layer.
✍ It is found in old deposit.
✍ It is used for making china wares and for medicines.

kaolinite mineral
Kaolinite Mineral

2. Montmorillonite Mineral 
✍ It is 2:1 substitution. ( 2 Si : 1 Al )
✍ Bonding force between two basic units of montmorillonit is " Wander wall Force " or " Water Force ".
✍ Wander wall force is weakest force among all the clay minerals hence exchangeable cation and water can easily penetrate between the layers causing swelling and shrinkage . 
✍ It is highly active.
✍ It has largest specific surface.
Black cotton soil and Bentonite has montmorillonite mineral.
Montmorillonite Mineral

3. Illite Mineral
✍ It is 2:1 substitution. ( 2 Si : 1 Al )

✍ Bonding force between two basic units of illite is " Potassium Bond " .Which is stronger than wander wall force and weaker than hydrogen bond.
✍ It is less active than montmorillonite.
illite mineral
Illite Mineral

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